There may be several causes for iCloud not syncing properly. Please try the following steps, as they may already solve the problems:
Please be aware that all iCloud syncing is handled using Apple’s background services. Therefore, our capabilities and insights regarding iCloud problems are limited: Ulysses is not able to force a sync, for example. Also, please note that Ulysses uses iCloud only to synchronize data across devices. iCloud is not a backup service—this is done using Time Machine.
On Mac, you can simply drag a sheet or a group from Ulysses to Finder or your Desktop. If you drag out a group, you can then compress the folder by right-clicking it and selecting “Compress <Folder>”. You can then send the sheet file or the zipped folder via Mail to your iOS device. Open the file in Ulysses on iOS to import it.
To transfer from iPad/iPhone to Mac, touch and hold the sheet or group you want to transfer. Tap Share and use a share action such as AirDrop, Message or Mail to send it to your Mac. Finally, drag the sheet file or the unzipped folder into Ulysses on Mac.